Category Archives: Breast Cancer

What Is The Cause Of Prostate Cancer

what is the cause of prostate cancer

What is the Cause of Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is caused by mutations in the DNA of the prostate cells. These abnormal cells continue to divide and grow until they form a tumor. If not treated, aggressive prostate cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body. The disease is inherited, so individuals with a family history are more likely to develop the condition. However, there are a number of risk factors that can increase a person’s risk of developing prostate cancer.

Oncogenes

Prostate cancer is caused by changes in the oncogenes in the prostate, a group of genes that help cells grow and divide. These genes also interact with tumor suppressors, which help cells grow under control, repair mistakes in DNA, and die at the right time. Genetic mutations, however, can change the expression of these genes and lead to prostate cancer. This condition is known as hereditary prostate cancer.

Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that help cells grow and reproduce. However, when these genes become mutated, they are permanently activated and start making proteins that code for cancer. This is known as a gain-of-function mutation, which changes the function of the cell from one of survival to growth. It is also one of the defining features of cancerous tumors.

Human papillomaviruses have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In 1965, Hill AB published a paper in which he argued that the environment plays a role in disease. Prostate published an article in 2002 that reported the discovery of human papillomaviruses in prostate tissue. This study identified multiple microorganisms and a pathogen signature.

ERG is an important example of a proto-oncogene. Its overexpression is associated with aggressive disease and the presence of PIN and ERG fusion messenger RNAs in early prostate cancer. The researchers in this study also noted that there is an association between the overexpression of ERG and ETS gene in prostate cancer. Moreover, ERG overexpression is associated with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.

Tumor suppressor genes

While it is still not known for sure which gene causes prostate cancer, researchers have made some progress in discovering the causes. Among these are oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Oncogenes regulate cell division, so when they are turned on, cancer cells develop. Tumor suppressor genes, on the other hand, regulate cell division by keeping cells healthy. Many cancers are inherited and are associated with mutations in tumor suppressor genes.

In this study, researchers identified TP53 and PTEN pathogenic TSG-alt as predicting poor prognosis at early disease stages. In addition, the loss of these two TSGs is associated with early disease progression, irrespective of treatment choice. Additionally, these findings outperformed other clinical variables in multivariable analyses. The increasing use of tumor sequencing in clinical trials may also indicate the need for molecular stratification of prognosis algorithms. If this finding is confirmed, it will improve prognostic tools.

Loss of ANX7 expression in human prostate tumor tissue has been correlated with clinically significant stages of prostate cancer. Further, loss of ANX7 expression is a biomarker of tumor cell proliferation and progression to late-stage prostate cancer. Molecular analysis of prostate tissue microarrays, which can study hundreds of tumors simultaneously, has also revealed that reduction of ANX7 expression is limited to metastases.

Overexpression of RBM5 in prostate cancer PC-3 cells induces apoptosis. RBM5 modulates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and may therefore represent a promising target for gene therapy in prostate cancer. Therefore, it is important to identify the specific tumor suppressor gene that controls the expression of RBM5 in prostate cells. The research has also identified the role of RBM5 in prostate cancer pathogenesis and treatment.

Age

Many factors influence a person’s risk for cancer, including age, certain behaviors, substances, and conditions. However, the majority of cancers are caused by a combination of risks. Age, for example, significantly increases a man’s risk. Although a man’s age isn’t the only cause of prostate cancer, it certainly contributes to the risk. People over 65 are more likely to develop prostate cancer than men younger than forty.

An enlarged prostate tends to grow larger with age. It may grow up to the size of a walnut by his forties and fifties, or it can become a lemon-sized mass by the time he’s in his 60s. As the prostate grows, it presses against the urethra and bladder and may impede or even prevent urine flow. Some men may find it difficult to start or stop a urine stream, or they may experience an urge to pee at odd times, such as when they’re sleeping.

While age plays a role in developing prostate cancer, some risk factors must be considered. Prostate cancer runs in families. Having a father or brother who has been diagnosed with the disease doubles a man’s risk of developing the disease. Having a brother or several other relatives with the disease also increases the risk. If they had the disease before 60, their risk is nearly doubled. Prostate cancer is more likely to recur if the man is older than 60.

Despite many factors that increase a man’s risk of developing prostate cancer, it’s rare in men under 50. Prostate cancer is associated with various genetic changes and is not always caused by age. Genetic changes in a man’s DNA are often inherited or acquired. Inherited genetic changes also increase a man’s risk. Inheritance can also increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.

Race

While the relationship between race and prostate cancer has been a longstanding mystery, several recent studies suggest that racial differences in the disease may be related to certain baseline characteristics. In a setting with homogeneous racial and ethnic composition, biological characteristics associated with race are easier to measure. For example, men from similar ethnic groups are more likely to live in areas with better environmental pollution, which may affect their overall health. Furthermore, some studies suggest that men from certain ethnic groups may have a greater propensity to drink and smoke than others. While a racial or ethnic difference in risk is hardly conclusive, these studies do demonstrate a correlation between prostate cancer and mortality.

However, there are a number of other factors that might contribute to this disparity. For instance, African-American men were found to have shorter repeats than white men and Asian men. However, the results of the study showed no significant differences in the mean number of repeats between white and Asian men. As a result, there may be a link between race and prostate cancer. If this association between race and prostate cancer is present, it might be possible to use such a relationship to better understand the disease.

Prostate cancer is rare in African-American men younger than 40, but the risk of developing it rapidly increases after age 50. Today, more than half of all cases of prostate cancer occur in men over 65. However, men of African descent and men of African ancestry have a higher risk of developing the disease, and they are diagnosed earlier than white men. In contrast, Asian and Hispanic men tend to experience a lower risk of prostate cancer.

Genetics

The recent GU-ASCO meeting in San Francisco, USA, provided an opportunity to hear from an emerging expert on genetics and prostate cancer, Heather Cheng. She discussed the role of genetic mutations in treatment for this disease and the science behind PARP inhibitors. In this interview, Dr. Cheng shares her experiences with prostate cancer and her research into the intersection of cancer genetics and prostate cancer. Listen to this interview to learn more about the latest developments in this field.

Although scientists have been studying a number of genetics and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer for years, a recent study reveals that one-third of the inherited risk for prostate tumors can be explained by environmental factors. In fact, the study analyzed 87,000 individuals from different ethnicities to identify 23 new genetic variants, the largest single-study approach to date. Ultimately, these findings can be used to better understand the cause and risk of prostate cancer in the future.

As the research into these genes progresses, scientists are looking for common germline mutations associated with this disease. The aim is to identify genes in families that have high rates of the disease. But finding a gene associated with the disease is not always easy. Some researchers have found loci on chromosome 1 and X that may be linked to the development of prostate cancer. But further research is necessary to understand how this cancer is caused.

While it is possible to identify a specific genetic mutation that is associated with the development of prostate cancer, genetic testing is not a cure for the disease. While the results of this test are not particularly informative, they do show whether a person has a higher risk than others. For example, BRCA1 gene carriers may be advised to undergo surgery after having children. While this procedure may also be necessary in some cases, it is not widely available and may not be covered by all health insurance plans.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

When To Get A Mammogram

When to Get a Mammogram

when to get a mammogram

There are several guidelines for when to get a mammogram, varying according to the advisory group. The American Cancer Society revised its annual mammogram recommendations in 2015, while the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends that women have an annual mammogram at age 40. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends a mammogram every two years for women age 50 and older. The best time to get a mammogram depends on your personal medical history, and the type of screening you’re scheduled for.

Women ages 50 to 74

The American Cancer Society recommends that women age 50 to 74 should get a mamogram every two years. The benefit-to-harm ratio of a mammogram improves with age. However, women whose risk for breast cancer is high enough to warrant screening earlier should start the process earlier. Despite the benefits, some women may not want to wait until their fifties.

Generally, American College of Physicians and the Task Force recommend that women age 50 to 74 get a mammogram every two years. But these guidelines differ for older women. The ACP recommends annual screenings for women 50 to 74, and biannual screenings for women 75 and older. It’s best to talk with your doctor before starting the mammogram. Even if you don’t have breast cancer, mammograms can help you detect early signs of a cancer.

While women ages 50 to 74 are recommended to get mammograms every two years, there is no definitive age limit on the number of screenings. However, more frequent screenings do not necessarily reduce the risk of breast cancer. As a general rule, women ages 50 to 74 should get a mammogram every two years. There are many reasons why this is important, including the fact that the earlier you get a mammogram, the lower the risk of cancer.

Although mammography is considered the best screening tool for early detection of breast cancer, the benefits of screening vary widely. Age should not be the determining factor when deciding to stop screening. The decision between the woman and her health care provider should be based on a shared decision-making process, taking into account a woman’s overall health, lifestyle, and life expectancy. Moreover, the doctor and the patient should also talk about the risks and benefits associated with mammography and if it’s appropriate for her.

The test can be painful, and the average woman will be in a hospital gown during the procedure. Nonetheless, the benefits of a mammogram outweigh the risks. While the test does cause some discomfort, the doctor can prescribe ibuprofen to alleviate any pain. If a woman is found to have breast cancer, she may undergo radiation therapy, surgery, or hormonal therapy.

Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends women get a mammogram at least every five years, the American Cancer Society recommends screening at least every two years for women between the ages of 40 and 44. After the age of fifty, screening should decrease to twice a decade. If a woman is not yet at risk for cancer, she should still consider getting a mammogram if her age is increasing.

There are several reasons why women between ages 50 and 74 should get a mammogram. Because the incidence of breast cancer increases with age, screening mammography has reduced the risk of death due to the disease in women in their fifties and sixties. However, many major organizations still do not recommend screening in older women, largely due to a lack of evidence to support the benefits of screening.

Because the benefits of screening mammography are smaller than the risks, it is not necessary for women in their fifties to undergo mammograms at that time. However, women aged fifty to seventy should consider their life expectancy when deciding whether or not to undergo a mammogram. Women aged seventy-four years old should still get a mammogram, but the benefit of this screening is minimal compared to the harms of the procedure.

The ACP has not recommended that women learn to perform a self-breast examination. It has been shown to cause false alarms. During a bath or dressing, a woman will be more likely to find a suspicious lump than if she waits until her doctor sees her. Regardless of her age, women should regularly monitor their breasts and report any changes to their doctors.

Women ages 45 to 54

The American Cancer Society recommends that women ages 45 to 54 get a mammogram every year. The 2003 guidelines urged women to get mammograms every year until they were in poor health or near the end of their lives. This new recommendation is a bit different. Women over age 55 should get a mammogram every two years. If they have no symptoms, however, they should still have a mammogram.

The American Cancer Society recommends that women ages forty-44 get a mammogram annually. After age 50, women should switch to biannual screening, and those over age 75 should have a mammogram every two years. If you have a family history of breast cancer, you should get a mammogram every two years. If you don’t have a family history of breast cancer, you may wish to get a mammogram earlier. However, remember that 75 percent of women diagnosed with breast cancer don’t have a family history.

In general, the benefit-to-harm ratio increases with age. That said, if you’ve never opted for screening in your thirties, you should start at age 50. The age-to-benefit ratio becomes better as you age, so women aged 45 to 54 should get a mammogram once a year. It’s important to start early and stay active, but don’t skip this vital test.

Because of the ACS’s stature, this new recommendation is crucial. While other groups have cautioned against mammograms, the cancer society is more prominent and is raising millions to fund research. ACS also recruits volunteers locally to help patients with breast cancer. This is an important step in preventing breast cancer and increasing women’s chances of beating it. So, why wait? Get screened today!

While it’s tempting to get a mammogram every year, you may not know if it’s a cancer or not. You might also notice a lump or an abnormality in your breast, but you probably won’t be able to find out if it’s cancerous. In any case, it’s best to talk to your doctor before you’ve had the chance to miss it.

ACS guidelines recommend that women age 45 to 54 get mammograms annually. However, women over 55 should transition to biannual screening. The American Cancer Society will also consider a woman’s family history, personal health, and other relevant factors. In addition, a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer should remain low for the rest of her life. If a woman gets a mammogram after age 55, she’s at a lower risk for developing cancer.

While there is no evidence that women ages 45 to 54 are at increased risk of breast cancer, a mammogram is still important. A mammogram may detect a cancer if it’s not detected early. A mammogram performed in this age group may show no signs of cancer but could still identify other problems in the body. In such a case, additional testing will be necessary.

The ACS guidelines cite two observational trials that showed that mammogram screening reduced mortality for women 75 and older. However, the data in these two trials did not include women older than 74 years old. Further, women who are in good health but have comorbid conditions should not receive screening mammography. The results of this simulation study were limited because it did not include women over 70 years old.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

What Is A Breast Cancer Screening

what is a breast cancer screening

What is a Breast Cancer Screening?

If you’re looking for a simple way to detect breast cancer in women, you should know what breast cancer screening is. Breast cancer screening is a medical procedure that doctors perform on asymptomatic women. The goal of this procedure is to detect cancers earlier, and the sooner they’re detected, the better. Read on to learn more about the four types of screening procedures. We’ll also discuss how these tests differ from each other.

Mammogram

Mammograms are X-ray images of the breasts, which can be used for both diagnostic and screening purposes. They involve spreading breast tissue and using a powerful X-ray machine to create images that look for suspicious cells. Mammograms are an important part of breast cancer screening because they can detect signs of cancer long before the patient is aware of them. They have even been proven to reduce the risk of dying from the disease.

A mammogram can detect early signs of breast cancer, such as a lump or abnormality. If a lump or nipple discharge is found, the next step is to get a diagnostic mammogram. Other symptoms of breast cancer include breast pain, thickening of the skin or a change in breast size and shape. A diagnostic mammogram can evaluate the changes found during a screening mammogram and can also be performed if it is impossible to obtain an adequate screening mammogram.

Because mammograms require relatively low amounts of radiation, the risks associated with repeated exposure to x-rays are small. Even though cancer can develop from repeated exposure to x-rays, the benefits of a mammogram far outweigh the risks associated with repeated exposure. If you have had breast symptoms, it is wise to let the x-ray technologist know so they can make sure you’re not pregnant.

Before undergoing a mammogram, remember that it can take several weeks to receive the results. There are several factors that can affect the results. For example, a woman’s breasts might be larger and heavier during her period, or her COVID-19 vaccination. In addition, women should wear a gown to ensure a better view. It’s also advisable to wear pants or skirts during the screening process, and only remove their bra and top.

Another factor that increases the chances of false-negative results is high breast density. Women with dense breasts are more likely to have false-negative results, as their breasts contain glandular and connective tissue that is similar in density to cancer cells. Because of this, women with dense breasts may not notice tumors as easily as women with less dense breasts. Moreover, younger women are more likely to be false-positive than older women.

Breast ultrasound

While mammograms are the gold standard for early detection of breast cancer, there are other screening methods available as well. Screening ultrasounds use high-frequency sound waves that cannot be heard by humans to view the breast. These exams do not use ionizing radiation and can be done on either an entirely manual or semi-automated machine. This article will provide information on both screening methods and how to decide which is right for you.

The procedure itself usually takes between 10 to 15 minutes. It usually involves the sonographer pressing a small probe against the area to be examined. This probe can be cold and may cause discomfort. The sonographer may also examine the lymph nodes under the armpit. Breast ultrasounds typically take 10 to 15 minutes. Afterwards, the patient is usually allowed to get dressed. After the ultrasound, the specialist will examine the pictures to see whether there is a lump. If the lump is fluid-filled, the sonographer may use a needle to drain the fluid. If it is solid, the specialist may recommend more tests, including a breast x-ray and a sample of cells from the area. This can also include needle biopsy of a lump found in the lymph nodes.

While mammograms are a more accurate screening method for breast cancer, there are certain conditions that may make an ultrasound more appropriate for you. Women who have dense breast tissue are less likely to have an accurate scan. For example, obese women may not get a clear picture from a breast ultrasound. And because ultrasounds are less accurate than mammograms, women with large or dense breasts should not undergo this screening method.

The use of portable ultrasound has several advantages over mammography. Portable ultrasounds can be easily carried and could serve as the primary detection modality. In addition to being portable, ultrasounds are cheap, durable, and portable, making them an excellent screening tool in low-resource settings. The Society of Breast Imaging has presented findings from this research at the Symposium on Global Cancer Research and the Breast Health Global Initiative Summit. You can read the full review of this study here.

MRI

Despite its potential for saving lives, MRI breast cancer screening is not always a good idea for everyone. Recent studies suggest that 80% of women screened for breast cancer in the community had benign lesions that were not detected by mammography. Further, these women may need additional work-ups, including repeat MRI scans, targeted ultrasounds, and biopsy. Such tests are often expensive and can cause unnecessary anxiety for the patient.

Abbreviated MRI protocols can detect breast cancer. These studies can save hundreds of MRI room hours, and can also offer more image storage, which is essential in advanced imaging methodologies. Short examinations can also be tolerated better by BC patients, as they reduce the motion of the patient. And although the cost of these tests may seem prohibitive, they may still be beneficial for screening women. The cost of breast MRI screening is only increasing, and women should be aware of its benefits and limitations before deciding whether or not to undergo it.

However, the cost-effectiveness of MRI for breast cancer screening is still up for debate. In fact, the American Cancer Society has not endorsed MRI for average-risk women, despite its widespread use in high-risk populations. The American College of Physicians’ recommendation for MRI breast cancer screening is inconsistent, and much of the data pertaining to the benefits and harms of the procedure are based on studies of high-risk populations. While the benefit-to-harm ratio is unknown for women at average risk, it is a good idea for moderate-risk women to undergo MRI breast screening.

Women with a family history of breast cancer have a lower risk of developing the disease than do women without these risks. In addition, women with a history of breast biopsy also have a higher chance of having an MRI. This is one of the reasons that women without family history should consider getting an MRI before they have a breast biopsy. The risk of breast cancer is low among women with no or one first-degree relative with the disease.

X-ray

The mythology surrounding routine X-ray breast cancer screening is a limiting factor for the use of these tests. This myth isn’t consistent with the reality of better scientific understanding. While the percentage of women who will develop breast cancer in Canada is about 3 percent, the fact that this disease is so prevalent feels overwhelming. The goal of a screening test is to find cancer early, when treatment is most effective. Fortunately, a screening test can find slow-growing and relatively inconspicuous cancers that are unlikely to cause serious illness or death.

However, x-ray breast cancer screening has limitations and is not always as sensitive as other screening methods. Some breast cancer screening programs report that 50% of all x-ray mammograms result in a false positive. In these cases, additional imaging technologies may be used to improve sensitivity. One such method is molecular breast imaging, a branch of nuclear medicine. This procedure uses radioactive molecules that are selectively taken up by cancer cells. Special cameras can detect the radioactivity.

Another option is an automated breast ultrasound, which is FDA-approved for women with dense breast tissue. Ultrasounds are not covered by insurance plans. However, ultrasound is a valuable additional screening tool, especially for women with dense breast tissue. Ultrasound isn’t covered by most insurance plans, so you’ll need to pay out of pocket. Unlike mammography, ultrasound is still an effective screening method for women with dense breast tissue.

Other methods of breast cancer screening include clinical examinations by health professionals. These doctors feel for lumps and other suspicious tissues in the breasts and under the arms. However, these screening methods have not been proven to reduce the risk of death from breast cancer. Therefore, women with dense breasts should consider MBI instead of MRI. This method uses a radioactive tracer to illuminate areas with cancer. Breast cancer cells absorb the radioactive substance much more readily than healthy ones.

The most accurate method is a screening mammogram. Although a screening mammogram can identify cancer in women without any symptoms, the high rate of false positives means that it’s still too early for effective treatment. This is why screening mammograms are still the best method for women without any risk factors. They have 84 percent accuracy rate, and they’re highly recommended if you’re 50 years old and over.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

What’s A Normal Psa Level By Age

whats a normal psa level by age

What’s a Normal PSA Level by Age?

Until recently, PSA levels below 4.0 ng/mL were considered normal. However, it has been found that some individuals with PSA levels below 4.0 have prostate cancer, but that most individuals between 4 and 10 ng/mL do not. These levels are based on average PSA levels for men. Therefore, a normal PSA level for an older man is approximately four ng/mL.

2.6 to 4 ng/mL

PSA levels can be measured by a urologist or a general practitioner without a physician’s prescription. Any PSA level over 4.0 ng/mL is suspicious. If a PSA level is over 10.0 ng/mL, it is likely to be related to prostate cancer. PSA levels rise with age and 2.6 to 4 ng/mL is considered a normal PSA level by age.

Although most men develop prostate cancer, some cancers are slow growing or very aggressive. Your doctor will consider your age and other factors before weighing the risks of treatment. In most cases, you should have a PSA screening every two to three years. However, he may recommend that you get screenings more often, depending on your PSA results. PSA levels that are greater than 2.5 ng/mL are considered abnormal. The median PSA level for men in their 40s and 50s is 0.6 to 0.7 ng/mL.

PSA is not detected in every man. The age at which PSA levels increase was determined in the study. The researchers used the PSA level when analyzing the PSA level at a particular age. Previously, PSA levels above four ng/mL were considered high risk and needed a biopsy. Now, the PSA cutoff value has been lowered to 2.6 ng/mL, a level that catches about 40 percent of cases of prostate cancer.

In the urology practice, PSA testing has become widespread. Although the upper limit of the test has been reduced, the age at which PSA levels are considered normal has decreased. It is now recommended for patients between the ages of 60 and 65 years. Even a PSA level lower than this number is an indicator of future prostate cancer. This test is still helpful in predicting the risk of prostate cancer in men older than 60.

The best PSA level for men by age depends on the PSA level at the beginning of midlife. It is not known whether a low PSA level in men before midlife is risky. Men between ages forty to fifty-four are at low risk for lethal PCa but those over sixty have a low risk of developing the disease. A PSA level below the median value at age 45 is still considered a high-risk patient.

0.6 to 0.5 ng/mL

PSA levels are a good indicator of potential prostate cancer, but a low PSA level by age doesn’t necessarily mean you have the disease. PSA levels can naturally increase with age, but they can also be affected by benign conditions such as prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia. You should visit your doctor to discuss your PSA levels if you have low levels, but a low PSA level does not necessarily mean that you have prostate cancer.

The test reports the PSA level in nanograms per milliliter of blood, and the doctor can use this information to make a diagnosis of prostate cancer. If your PSA level is lower than 0.6 to 0.5 ng/mL, your doctor will recommend additional tests to confirm your diagnosis. By age 65, PSA levels are normal for men.

In the Swedish study, men were stratified by PSA level, age, and the time from the time they reached the 90th percentile. If the PSA level was less than 0.5 ng/mL, the risk of developing prostate cancer was lower than for men with age-matched PSA. The same risk factors were not present for men who were below the 90th percentile, and they did not develop PCa.

In the case of men with a PSA level of 0.6 to 0.5 ng/ml, the risk of developing lethal PCa is low, and a low PSA level is normal. It is essential to get regular PSA tests to detect prostate cancer in its early stages. Its normal PSA level by age is 0.6 to 0.5 ng/mL.

PSA levels by age vary with the type of cancer. Those in the 40s were at the lowest risk, but men in their fifties and sixties were at the highest risk. A PSA level above the median was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing lethal PCa. Specifically, the ORs (relative risk) of men with a PSA level higher than the median was 7.6 to 21 for men 40-49 years, 3.4 to 17.4 for men 50-54 years old, and 10.4 (95% CI) for men aged 60 and over.

10 ng/mL

Although the reference ranges for men and women are based on age, some recent research suggests that PSA levels over 10 ng/mL are still normal and can even increase over time. A study conducted by Brawer and colleagues in 2009 reported that the average PSA level of men was 6.6 ng/mL at age 70, a lower level than the traditional cutoff for prostate cancer.

In the US, it is now considered that a PSA level of 10 ng/mL is a “normal” PSA level by age. However, the age-related PSA reference ranges are not as helpful as the current standard, as they do not take into account the variability of PSA test results among individuals of different races. Thus, a 10-ng/mL PSA level is not the best way to diagnose prostate cancer, and the upper limit of a normal PSA level by age 40 to 49 is too high for the vast majority of men.

Having a normal PSA level is the best way to prevent prostate cancer. As we age, the PSA level will increase naturally. However, a higher PSA level may indicate an underlying cancer. In some cases, a low PSA level may indicate a benign condition such as prostatitis, an enlarged prostate, or urinary tract infection. If your PSA level is low, you should consult a doctor to determine what the cause is. The low PSA level does not necessarily mean cancer, but it should be treated carefully and with a minimum of invasive procedures.

PSA is an important diagnostic tool in predicting the risk of dying from prostate cancer. While there are no definitive guidelines for a normal PSA level, men over the age of 70 have a higher risk of dying from the disease. Even at lower PSA levels, the disease still has a significant cancer-specific mortality rate, which makes it necessary to do further research to reduce mortality among the elderly population.

11 ng/mL

The PSA level at which a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer is determined through a blood test. The PSA level is measured in the serum. The median PSA level ranged from 0.3 to 7.0 ng/mL. A man’s age affects the PSA level. The older a man is, the higher his PSA level is likely to be. The cutoff level for detecting prostate cancer is 4.0 ng/mL. A PSA level of this level increases the risk of developing this disease by a factor of four to eighty percent. The PSA level at this level is also a determinant of whether a man develops prostate cancer.

If a man’s PSA level is higher than the normal PSA level for his age, he may be referred to a specialist. However, a PSA level of three or less may be considered normal. In addition to this, the PSA density, or the amount of PSA per volume of prostate gland, may be a more accurate way to determine a man’s PSA level.

While there is no clear definition of a normal PSA level by age, one can take into account that PSA levels increase with age. The researchers studied men from 50 to 78 who did not have prostate cancer and observed that an increase of approximately 0.75 ng/mL/yr was associated with a higher risk of developing cancer. The researchers did note that there is considerable intraindividual variation in PSA test results.

The findings of this study should be taken with caution, however, because recent issues with PSA data reporting at the US National Cancer Institute raise questions about the reliability of similar results from other large populations. Nonetheless, the strength of the study is the fact that it is based on VA PSA data. As these values are extracted directly from the VA clinical laboratory databases, they are derived from a large patient population and used by health care providers.

While PSA testing is still controversial, one study shows that it should not be performed on men over 70 years of age. Nonetheless, prostate cancer remains a significant problem for older men and should be given additional research. While there are a few studies available to support the use of PSA screening, it is important to know what PSA values are normal by age in your age group.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

How Bad Is Prostate Cancer

How Bad Is Prostate Cancer?

how bad is prostate cancer

Among the four basic treatment options for prostate cancer, low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDB) is the most commonly used. But what does the alternative treatment mean? In this article, we discuss active surveillance, low-dose-rate brachytherapy, and chemotherapy. But before deciding which treatment is best for your case, you should understand the basics. Here, we will compare the risks and benefits of each.

Low dose-rate brachytherapy

Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer uses radioactive seeds in catheters inserted in the scrotum or anus, where the seeds give off radiation. Treatment lasts from five minutes to an hour, and the radioactive seed is removed after the final treatment. This type of treatment is also sometimes combined with external beam radiation. However, there are significant differences between the two methods.

While high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer is relatively safe, the treatment does have certain risks. Patients should be aware of the possible side effects of radiation treatment. After all, radiation stays in the body for a few days. The risk of side effects is greater for patients with large prostates. However, men can expect these effects to diminish with time. The treatment is recommended for men with a large prostate.

High-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer uses the most powerful radiation therapy for the tumor while minimizing the risk of side effects. EBRT uses a radiation machine that rotates around the patient, allowing the doctor to better target the tumor and minimize damage to healthy tissues. This type of treatment is less expensive than high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer, and the initial set-up time is significantly shorter than for conventional irradiation.

The procedure involves inserting thin tubes into the prostate. The tubes are attached to a machine that sends radioactive sources into the prostate. The tubes are inserted through the skin of the patient’s scrotum and the back passage. During the procedure, the patient lies on his or her back. A short time after, the radiation source is removed. This procedure usually requires two treatments. External radiotherapy can be combined with HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

The long-term outcomes of prostate brachytherapy depend on the type of treatment and the patient’s risk group. Long-term PSA-recurrence-free survival rates (PRFS) range from 85-95% for patients with low or intermediate risk. Patients with intermediate and high risk have a 50% chance of achieving PSA control. Combined with EBRT, LDR may improve PSARFS.

The treatment of low-dose-rate brachytherapy is similar to that of radical prostatectomy. It also includes the use of other cancer treatments, including hormone therapy and cryotherapy. Besides prostate brachytherapy, patients may also undergo chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or surgery. In some cases, patients with low-grade cancers can benefit from this treatment as well. However, this treatment has several drawbacks.

Aside from causing radiation-induced urotoxicity, low-dose-rate brachytherapy has side effects that can include bleeding from the back passage. In some men, this could be a sign of bowel cancer or piles. If it’s the latter, doctors will test the patient for possible causes of the bleeding. For those who don’t smoke, a rectal spacer may be placed between the prostate and back passage. The rectal spacer can reduce the amount of radiation that goes into the back passage. It also decreases the risk of rectal problems.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments for advanced prostate cancer. Unlike surgery, it slows the progression of cancer cells and relieves symptoms. Chemotherapy drugs are usually given intravenously, but there are some exceptions. Most chemotherapy drugs are administered to patients with more advanced disease, and a doctor may use other types of drugs or a combination of them. It can also be given as a pill.

Hormone therapy is another treatment for advanced cancers. This treatment lowers male hormone levels in the body, such as testosterone. Because many prostate cancers are fueled by testosterone, lowering androgen levels may shrink the cancer. It may involve surgically removing the testicles, which produce testosterone. It can be given for as long as 36 months, depending on the severity of the cancer. There are many different types of hormone therapy.

Patients with advanced prostate cancer can participate in clinical trials to try out new drugs or treatments. These trials are usually open to all types of patients and are aimed at improving the way we treat different illnesses. You can ask your doctor or nurse about these trials if they apply to you. They may even offer new treatments that are not yet widely available. Ask your doctor about these trials and their experience with cancer. In addition to this, clinical trials are available to patients at any stage of the disease.

After completion of chemotherapy, men will have regular follow-up appointments. The doctor will explain what medicines and treatments you will receive, and what side effects may occur. Usually, men will receive the drug through a drip or cannula. In some cases, men may experience symptoms of a relapse or worsening of their condition. However, this doesn’t mean that chemotherapy is not working. The treatment can take months and may be stopped entirely.

Another side effect of chemotherapy is a decreased number of white blood cells. The white blood cells in the body act as an important part of the immune system, helping fight infection. Without these cells, the cancer might spread. Patients also have to worry about having a serious infection. Despite these risks, most men can lead a normal life while under the effects of chemotherapy. In fact, chemotherapy is safe for pregnant women and children.

Advanced stages of prostate cancer require more aggressive treatment than stage one. The cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the area or far from the prostate gland. It may also spread to other parts of the body, including the bones. Stage four prostate cancer is a high-risk group and requires more aggressive treatment. While surgery is one option, chemotherapy is often the only option when cancer has spread to distant organs. However, if it has spread to the lymph nodes or bones, surgery is an option.

Active surveillance

Although active surveillance for prostate cancer may sound like a good idea, it can be a difficult concept for some men, their spouses, and their doctors. For one thing, men on active surveillance are already dealing with anxiety and worry about the cancer itself. As much as 30% of men who receive active surveillance have a hard time before their doctor visit or MRI, and that anxiety alone can drive them to opt for treatment. The good news is that the concept of active surveillance is gaining ground, and the first steps to achieving it are being made easier with the right information.

People who have low-risk, low-grade prostate cancer may be eligible for active surveillance. Their Gleason score is six or seven, which means that they have low-grade prostate cancer. They may also be willing to make frequent medical visits. This approach is a good option if the cancer has not spread. Although active surveillance is not a cure, it can limit the time that cancer can grow and spread, so it’s important to choose it carefully.

Active surveillance for prostate cancer has been shown to be safe and feasible for patients with favorable-risk prostate cancer. The study showed that, over a period of 15 years, only 2.8% of patients developed metastatic disease and only 1.5% died of prostate cancer. Moreover, active surveillance reduces the overtreatment of patients with prostate cancer based on their Gleason score. While some men are more likely to develop a prostate cancer diagnosis later, this option may provide a longer-term alternative to treatment.

During active surveillance, patients with prostate cancer undergo a series of regular visits with their health care team. They are required to report any new symptoms to the doctor. Their health care team will discuss active surveillance with them and determine whether it is a good option for them. During these visits, PSA blood levels will be measured to monitor the cancer’s progression. If levels rise, it may indicate the presence of more advanced cancer.

Although AS can help protect a man’s sexual and bowel function, it has limitations. Most patients on AS are still undergoing surveillance until they develop a higher risk of prostate cancer. However, this approach is recommended for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The benefits of active surveillance are well documented, and the cost of treatment is high enough to make it worth the risks. If you think active surveillance isn’t for you, consider other options.

If you have prostate cancer that has not spread to distant sites, active surveillance is an ideal option for you. While active surveillance has its drawbacks, it can be a safe and effective way to manage the disease, and can sometimes even stop it at its early stages. There are many risks associated with active surveillance, however, so talk with your doctor if you’re interested in this method. Active surveillance may be a good option for you if you have a low-risk prostate cancer.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

Do Mammograms Hurt

Do Mammograms Hurt?

You might be wondering whether mammograms hurt. This article will cover the side effects of a mammogram and how the radiation doses are very low. Also, you’ll learn about the Symptoms of breast cancer after having a mammogram. Listed below are some important facts about mammograms and the radiation doses. You’ll also discover the best ways to avoid pain after the procedure.

Compression helps the mammography unit see all of your breast tissue

Compression reduces the thickness of your breast, resulting in clearer images and a smaller radiation dose. Compression is done by holding the breast in a fixed position, which minimizes the chance of image blurring and motion artifacts. This technique can also help reduce the amount of radiation the mammography unit has to work with. In addition, compression can help you feel more comfortable during your mammogram.

Self-compression can be difficult to understand, but radiographers in six different centers completed a questionnaire to find out if patients have any problems with the technique. The questionnaire included six questions about self-compression, including how hard it is for them to explain it to a patient. Other questions focused on patient comfort and how the procedure was made easier. Among these questions, the most common responses were not at all, a little, a lot, and almost never.

The study, involving multiple radiologists and radiographers, included women who had undergone mammography but did not experience pain. The researchers looked at how much compression a woman experiences during screening. Women who are subjected to a higher level of compression showed fewer tumors in comparison to women who did not have a higher compression level. Furthermore, women who undergo breast compression at higher levels of compression had a negative impact on their images.

The self-compression technique was found to be effective by almost 90% of patients. The researchers found that self-compression improved the satisfaction of patients by improving their experience. The technique can also help increase patient compliance. A small number of women felt more comfortable and confident after doing their compression. And the study was conducted on ninety women, in whom self-compression was helpful in a randomized controlled trial.

The images from this procedure are stored in digital files, making them accessible to doctors. Most images taken with mammography are electronically stored digitally, so doctors can consult them whenever necessary. A specially qualified radiologic technologist positions your breast on a special platform. Once the mammography unit gets all the images, the radiologist can determine the location and size of your mass. In most cases, a mammogram performed using a compression technique may not require a follow-up visit.

Radiation doses are very low

Radiation doses for mammograms do not pose any risk to the patient. In the U.S., the average annual effective dose from natural and man-made background radiation is 3 millisieverts (mSv). However, the average effective dose from a two-view digital mammogram is 0.4 mSv, or less than half the radiation that a woman would naturally absorb in a year.

During a survey of screening centres in the UK between 2010 and 2012, it was found that the average dose per view for a two-view mammogram was 1.5mGy. This resulted in a reduction in the incidence of radiation-induced cancers. However, the large variation in mammogram doses may warrant further investigation of the national DRL. In addition, digital mammography has been introduced in Greece.

Despite the fact that radiation doses for mammograms are very small, doctors must consider the health risks of their patients. For example, the average dose for a chest CT (CXR) is only seven milliSv, while a full body CT requires a person to swallow a radioactive substance to produce images. As a result, it is important to consider the risk against the benefits of radiation therapy before undergoing any kind of radiation therapy.

The quality of mammograms can be judged visually, and the signal-to-noise ratio of evaluated lesions was unaffected in example cases. In a 67-year-old woman with a 72-mm compressed breast thickness, an MLO image was acquired with a mean glandular dose of 3.8 mGy for Mo/Mo and 2.4 mGy for W/Rh.

Despite the small risk associated with mammography screening, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended that it be conducted on a broader population of women than the current guidelines allow. ICRP estimates that the number of radiation-induced cancers saved by mammography screening is 150 times smaller than the number of lives saved by mammography. That means that radiation doses are very low in the context of breast cancer screening.

The incidence of radiation-induced cancer from mammograms is not well-established and cannot be estimated, but it is unlikely to be high compared to the mortality benefit of mammogram screening. Furthermore, the risk increases with age and frequency of screening. Further, women with large breasts may be more susceptible to radiation-induced breast cancer. In addition to the high mortality rate associated with mammogram screening, repeated digital mammogram examinations expose women to higher levels of ionizing radiation than those with smaller breasts.

Symptoms of breast cancer after a mammogram

A standard mammogram will produce mostly white areas showing dense, healthy tissue. While a white area may be indicative of a tumor, it does not necessarily mean it is cancerous. Most benign breast masses are not threatening and will not change or grow in size. A radiologist will carefully examine the images for abnormalities, noting the size, shape, and edges of lumps. These abnormalities are also called cysts. If you notice any of these symptoms after a mammogram, you should immediately contact your doctor.

While the first symptom of breast cancer may be a painless lump in the breast, other signs may include uneven edges, dimpling of the breast skin, and swelling of the breast. The breast lump can also be tender, hard, or rounded. Breast lumps and changes may indicate less serious conditions, such as an infection or cyst. To rule out the possibility of breast cancer, your doctor will perform a breast ultrasound to look for the lumps and abnormalities.

The mammogram results will come within a few weeks of your mammogram. If a mammogram reveals abnormalities, your doctor will recommend further tests. You may need a breast ultrasound or a biopsy if cancer was found in your mammogram. You may also need to have another mammogram if the mammogram has detected a lump.

If you notice a mass on your mammogram, you should have it examined. Symptoms of breast cancer after a mammogram include swollen or hardened breast tissue and the presence of calcium deposits. A doctor will order a biopsy to confirm whether the lump is cancerous. The results of a mammogram will determine the cause of the symptoms. The treatment for breast cancer depends on the size, location, and location of the lump.

Some signs of breast cancer after a mammogram include persistent pain in the breast area. Besides the pain, you may also experience other symptoms like skin puckering or dimpling on the affected breast area. This may mean that you have breast cancer. The symptoms of breast cancer after a mammogram may range from mild to severe. When they occur, it is important to seek a medical evaluation immediately.

Side effects of a mammogram

There are certain precautions you should take before a mammogram. You should avoid having the exam during your period because your breasts may feel tender. If you have breast implants, be sure to notify the office when scheduling the exam. You should also avoid wearing deodorant, talcum powder, or lotion to the mammogram office. These products can interfere with the X-ray images and result in calcium spots.

Mammograms use x-rays to create images of breast tissue. The images are displayed on a computer screen, and a radiologist examines them. The images are typically available within a few weeks of the procedure. Some women experience discomfort after the procedure, but it is a relatively short procedure. Typically, women will feel tenderness in the breast for a few hours after the procedure.

Radiation is always a risk, and mammograms expose women to small amounts of radiation. However, this exposure is rare compared to the cancer risk associated with repeated chest X-rays. A woman who undergoes mammograms every three years will increase her chances of getting cancer by just slightly over her lifetime. If you are pregnant or have a medical condition that increases the risk of cancer, you should let your healthcare provider know before your mammogram.

The mammogram results may be a bit worrying. The dense breast tissue may be benign. However, the results can be misleading. Asymmetrical breast tissue can mean an underlying tumor, which can be harmful. The doctor may need to perform additional tests or biopsy to be certain. The doctor may recommend a diagnostic mammogram in such a case. But this test is not necessarily recommended without a screening mammogram.

During the mammogram, the technician positions your breasts on a plastic imaging plate. This compression compresses the breast, exposing it to X-rays. This allows the mammogram technician to detect lumps. The X-ray image should show no signs of cancer, but some women may experience some soreness. However, this discomfort is minimal compared to the pain experienced during the X-ray process.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

How Does Prostate Surgery Affect You Sexually

how does prostate surgery affect you sexually

How Does Prostate Surgery Affect You Sexually?

Among the many questions men may have about prostate surgery is: How does it affect you sexually? Men who have undergone surgery typically lose their ability to respond to six specific triggers that lead to an erection. Afterward, men often experience a powerful emotional reaction as they are unable to perform the physical act of erection. The loss of this capacity creates feelings of anger, shame, frustration, and loss. Few men or couples are offered post-surgery counseling to deal with these issues. As a result, men withdraw emotionally and physically from their partners and relationships become highly stressed.

Changes in size of penis

Studies have shown that two-thirds of prostate surgery patients experience a shortening of the penis. The decrease in length is usually nearly an inch. Fortunately, most men recover to their original preoperative length within a year of surgery. However, the shrinkage may be gradual and not affect the man’s sex life permanently. Nevertheless, the results of these studies haven’t yet been replicated in humans.

Surgical treatment for localized prostate cancer, called radical prostatectomy, is the preferred procedure for young, sexually active men. However, the erectile silent period following this procedure may result in permanent structural changes to the penile structure. These changes affect girth and length and may lead to a reduced ability to erection. A brief overview of the changes that may occur after prostate surgery is summarized in the following table.

Although surgery for prostate cancer is generally highly effective, it can lead to a reduced libido and reduced sexual performance. However, with a supportive relationship and regular visits with a sex therapist, men can begin to rebuild physical intimacy with their partners. Even if it takes some time, there is no reason to lose hope – sexual health is vital for the entire family and a healthy relationship.

Surgical treatments for prostate cancer patients may change the anal experience, such as penile enlargement and ejaculation. Some men even report painful erections after surgery. However, it is important to note that this may be a symptom of internal bruising or radiotherapy, which can affect sexual function. If you are wondering if you can have sex with a larger penis after prostate surgery, the answer may lie in the fact that many men find the process pleasurable.

The surgery is a life-changing experience, but after the recovery period is over, your sex life may be impacted. You may need to change your sex habits, use ED medications, or engage in penile rehabilitation exercises to improve sexual performance. Talk to your healthcare provider and partner about all of the changes to your sex life. They will be able to advise you about the best course of action to take.

The recovery process of erectile function after prostate surgery is usually slower than that of other areas, and patients become increasingly suspicious when their ability to reach an erection has been affected. It takes several months for a patient to fully recover, and it may be several months before he or she is aware of the effects of the surgery on sexual function. However, once the patient has completed the surgery, erectile function should return to normal.

Changes in penis size after prostate surgery are common and can greatly impact the man’s sex life. Patients may experience unexciting sex or may even lose their sex drive. They may also experience difficulty achieving an erection. The rate of Peyronie’s disease after prostate surgery varies from patient to patient, but it does affect the quality of a man’s life.

Nerve damage

The problem of nerve damage after prostate surgery can affect sexual function and quality of life. This condition can occur during other types of surgery as well, including rectal and bladder cancer surgeries. As a result, many men experience an increase in ED and anxiety during sex. However, it is possible to recover from nerve damage following prostate surgery. Here are some of the possible causes. This article describes the most common ones.

The first cause of nerve damage after prostate surgery is the surgical procedure itself. The surgery damages the muscles of the pelvic floor, which play a vital role in ejaculation and erections. The surgery can cause the muscles to “switch off” and result in erectile dysfunction. It is therefore important to discuss this condition with your doctor if you suspect that your erectile function has been impaired.

If you are having a radical retropubic prostatectomy, your doctor will likely remove some of your prostate and some of the nerve tissue as well. This could lead to a longer recovery time. In addition, some men experience a loss of ejaculate, which can cause a severe impairment in orgasm. Fortunately, some treatments can help improve sexual function, such as PDE-5 inhibitors. Depending on the stage of your disease, the treatments may last between four and six months or longer.

The new research has shown that a topical cream can restore erectile function after prostate cancer surgery. The drug was first developed by researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. It has been tested on rats, but results are awaited to determine if the drug will help patients recover their sexual function. It may be able to prevent the problem entirely by repairing damaged nerves. In the meantime, the drug will help prevent the development of prostate cancer in the future.

Although a man may still achieve orgasm despite the fact that there is no liquid or erection after the surgery, he may have to wait until he feels ready. The recovery process may be slow, but it is possible to overcome the difficulties and get back to enjoying sex. In addition to physical therapy, men may undergo couples therapy to help them cope with the effects of the procedure.

Men who experience erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery may be afraid to have another sexual interaction. They may feel like they are missing out on life because they can’t achieve an erection. However, the pain and anxiety that erectile dysfunction causes are often not minor. Therefore, it’s important to seek medical help as soon as possible to recover your sexual function. And, if the problem is severe, consult a urologist who is experienced in sexual health issues.

Treatment options

If you are worried about the effects of prostate surgery on your sex life, you may want to discuss your concerns with your doctor. He or she can prescribe hormone therapy or surgery to help you achieve an erection and enjoy sexual intercourse again. Some men experience a loss of libido or sex drive after these treatments. Others maintain their desire for sex, but may find it difficult to reach an erection or have an orgasm. Other men experience a decreased flow of semen during ejaculation.

While surgical treatment for prostate cancer can have a dramatic effect on a man’s life, there is hope for men. While some side effects of prostate cancer treatments can affect sex life, many men find that these complications can be treated with appropriate therapy and drugs. Many men are surprised to learn that a prostate cancer procedure can cause sexual effects and can make it difficult to enjoy intercourse again. But there is hope, and it is possible to get past these negative consequences.

Patients can undergo many different treatments for prostate cancer, based on the stage of the disease, and their overall health. However, there is a side effect associated with prostate cancer treatment called erectile dysfunction. If you are experiencing any of these side effects, you should seek further medical advice before undergoing treatment. You should also consider clinical trials. These studies are meant to test new drugs or combinations of standard treatments, to find a treatment that will work for you.

In addition to the surgeries and hormone therapies, radiation therapy may also be used to treat prostate cancer. Brachytherapy is a form of internal radiation therapy in which small radioactive seeds are implanted inside the prostate. These seeds then release radiation near the insertion site. Low-dose seeds may remain in the prostate for a year or more. High-dose seeds are implanted for less than 30 minutes, and may need to be repeated.

Another type of prostate removal surgery has similar side effects, but it is less invasive. This type of surgery uses small incisions in the abdomen. The surgeon inserts a probe through the incision. The probe is then removed through a small incision. Its sexual side effects are similar to those of a radical prostatectomy. Bilateral orchiectomy, on the other hand, involves the removal of both testicles.

In advanced stages of prostate cancer, surgery can be combined with radiation therapy to kill cancer cells. This treatment option is effective in slowing or preventing the growth of the cancer. However, prostate cancer patients must choose between surgery and radiation therapy to control the symptoms and effects of the disease. A doctor may recommend either of these treatments or both based on the patient’s age and general health condition. It is important to consider both options to maximize their chance of achieving a cure.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

How Fast Does Aggressive Prostate Cancer Grow

how fast does aggressive prostate cancer grow

How Fast Does Aggressive Prostate Cancer Grow?

Often men wonder how fast does aggressive prostate cancer grow. This article will explain how the tumor is classified and the growth rate of aggressive prostate cancer. It will also cover early detection and treatment options. Listed below are some of the most common methods used to detect prostate cancer. Listed below are some of the most common ways to detect aggressive prostate cancer and their respective growth rates. Read on to learn more. Posted in: How Does Aggressive Prostate Cancer Grow?

Grading system for prostate cancer

The Gleason grading system has been in use for more than 50 years and has helped doctors better understand the disease’s prognosis. It is a complex system with 25 potential grades, and many factors affect how each cancer is graded. To simplify the system, researchers developed a five-tier system. Each of these grades describes an individual architectural pattern. In this article, we’ll look at how this system works and how it compares to the Gleason grading system.

The Gleason grading system has several problematic aspects. For example, the lowest score given is Gleason 3+3 = 6. Patients given this score may interpret it as an intermediate cancer with poor prognosis. Additionally, some classification systems fail to differentiate between Gleason 3+4 = 7 and Gleason 4+3 = 8. The lower score indicates an intermediate cancer with a worse prognosis.

The Gleason grading system is an important tool in treating prostate cancer. It has improved significantly since Gleason’s description in the 1960s. The ISUP consensus conference has moved many original Gleason pattern 3 morphologies to Gleason pattern 4. Patients with tumors with a Gleason score of three or lower are generally considered to have a lower risk of progression. A positive biopsy always indicates the presence of cancer but gives little information about the extent of tumor.

The Gleason grading system has made significant improvements since its introduction in 1957. However, there are still a few nuances that make the system less than ideal. The first change concerns the number of glands in a prostate. Although a tumor may contain only a few tumors, the size of the dominant nodule will usually be associated with the highest stage and grade. Another change has been the inclusion of ill-formed glands in the Gleason grading system.

Another change in the grading system for aggressive prostate cancer is the way the tumor is graded. Earlier prostate cancer was graded according to its location, with the Gleason system being the most commonly used. Nowadays, a group of researchers from the Johns Hopkins Hospital proposed a new patient-centric grading system in 2013. This system was validated in 2014 through a multi-institutional study and has become the accepted system for aggressive prostate cancer.

Growth rate of aggressive prostate cancer

The Gleason score (TS) is used to classify different stages of prostate cancer. This score reflects the growth rate of cancer cells. It is divided into localized, regional, and distant stages. Localized prostate cancer has not spread to nearby structures and lymph nodes. Distant stage prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body and has metastasized. Men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer will live an average of five years after diagnosis.

The researchers tested this computational method using large-scale data. They accessed 33 million PSA test results from 14 million men in the Veterans Affairs Health System. They then analyzed data from 58,523 men ranging in age from 50 to 75. They used an exponential plus constant trend to calculate the cancer-derived PSA over time. As PSA grew, the investigators found that the risk of dying from prostate cancer increased by 2 points.

The growth rate of aggressive prostate cancer is determined by analyzing the size of the tumor under the microscope. While a lower Gleason score indicates a less aggressive tumor, the higher Gleason score means a more aggressive tumor with greater potential for growth and spread. Ultimately, these numbers will help determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient. But if there is no specific test to predict a person’s risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer, there is no certainty yet.

The growth rate of aggressive prostate cancer can be influenced by genetic factors. African American men and those with Caribbean African ancestry are more likely to develop the disease. Additionally, those with the BRCA gene mutation have a higher risk of developing the disease. In addition to BRCA mutations, men with aggressive prostate cancer are at increased risk of developing the disease. So, how can they reduce their risk? Fortunately, there are many treatments available.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is another way to look at the size of the tumor. During the scan, a radionuclide dye is injected into the body. The images of the cancer are made clearer by the dye. The PSA test is used to detect the vast majority of slow-growing prostate cancer tumors. But only 10-15% of aggressive prostate cancers are dangerous. But if detected in time, the aggressive disease can be effectively treated.

Treatment options for aggressive prostate cancer

There are several different treatment options available for aggressive prostate cancer, and many patients may need multiple treatments. Treatment for aggressive prostate cancer may include radiation therapy, surgery, and hormonal therapy. The type of radiation therapy used will depend on the specific type of prostate cancer that you have. External beam radiation therapy (EBR) combines several different types of radiation into a single treatment. The benefit of EBR is that it is less invasive than other forms of radiation therapy.

Radiation and surgery can be effective treatments for most types of prostate cancer, though these methods can have some side effects. For instance, hormonal therapy may be an option for patients who do not want or cannot tolerate chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs are designed to target fast-growing cells, and are typically reserved for high-risk patients with prostate cancer or recurrences. If you do experience symptoms, however, you may want to consider hormonal therapy to reduce your risks of developing a biochemical recurrence.

If you have aggressive prostate cancer, your doctor may recommend radiation therapy and hormonal therapy. External beam radiation involves having a machine move around your body to direct high-powered energy beams at the prostate cancer. This treatment may take several weeks to complete, although some medical centers offer shorter courses. A doctor will decide on the best course of treatment based on the specific stage of cancer, its location, and other factors. If a patient has a high risk cancer, a clinical trial is an option.

If your aggressive prostate cancer has spread outside of the prostate, you may need to undergo additional treatment. Surgery and radiation therapy can help reduce the size of the prostate, but you may need other treatments for aggressive prostate cancer. Treatment options for aggressive prostate cancer may include medications that can destroy cancer cells outside the prostate gland. You should ask your doctor about any side effects of these treatments, especially hormone-related side effects. The results of each treatment may vary, so you should consult a physician who specializes in this type of cancer.

If you choose this treatment option, your surgeon will perform a surgery that removes the prostate gland and some surrounding lymph nodes. The procedure is done by a surgeon specialized in treating cancer through surgery, called a surgical oncologist. Depending on the stage of your disease, your doctor may recommend a specific type of surgery, including a robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. This surgery involves making several small incisions in your abdomen. During the surgery, the surgeon uses hand-held controls to guide the robotic device.

Early detection of prostate cancer

It is not uncommon for men to be under-diagnosed with prostate cancer. However, new technologies have changed this and now allow for active surveillance and non-invasive monitoring, which allows clinicians to pursue the best treatment at the right time. While some men are concerned that screening for PSA will lead to overdiagnosis, the evidence is clear. If done correctly, PSA tests can lead to years of high quality life and reduced mortality.

However, there are some people who experience side effects after receiving treatment for aggressive prostate cancer. In these cases, surgery or radiation may still be needed. In addition, there may be other health problems that interfere with treatment. Ultimately, early detection and treatment is the key to a cure. Although early detection of aggressive prostate cancer is crucial, it can also be expensive and have adverse side effects. The most important thing to do is speak to your doctor if you suspect that you may have this type of cancer.

The first step to detection is identifying a tumor by PSA or hK2. Prostate-specific antigen is the most common marker of aggressive prostate cancer, but this is not a foolproof way to identify the disease. Fortunately, there are many clinical-grade urine tests available, including the Michigan Prostate Score, which combines PSA, T2:ERG gene fusion, and PCA3 lncRNA. If these tests can detect aggressive cancer, treatment can start immediately.

Prostate biopsy is another way to detect prostate cancer early. The doctor will take a small sample of the prostate tissue and analyze it in a lab. The biopsy results will determine whether there are any cancer cells present in the tissue. The doctor will then determine what treatments are best for the patient. For aggressive cancer, it is recommended to undergo a biopsy as soon as possible. If the biopsy comes back negative, the doctor may recommend surgery.

Molecular tests are another way to detect aggressive prostate cancer. Liquid biopsies contain molecular correlates of aggressive prostate cancer, and can reduce unnecessary prostate biopsy. DNA hypermethylation is the first aberration in the DNA of the prostate. DNA methylation is a key marker of PCa, and a six-gene panel can identify high-risk and high-grade PCa. While the test has not yet been widely adopted, it is promising for early detection.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

How Long Does Erectile Dysfunction Last After Prostate Surgery

how long does erectile dysfunction last after prostate surgery

How Long Does Erectile Dysfunction Last After Prostate Surgery?

When a man has prostate surgery, the surgeon cuts all of his prostate tissue, including the tiny nerve bundles that control erections. This approach preserves the nerves, but it’s not always an option. If the cancer is close to the nerves, it’s best to avoid cutting them altogether. However, when all the nerves are cut, a man will no longer be able to spontaneously erect. Some men can regain erections after certain treatments.

Treatments for erectile dysfunction

During the course of your treatment for prostate cancer, your physician may recommend several types of erectile dysfunction treatments. Some of these include High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) and cryotherapy, which may reduce erection problems. ED treatments can also cause nerve damage, and researchers are currently investigating long-term side effects. Regardless of the treatment method you choose, talking to your urologist about all your treatment options is essential.

The erectile function-related tissues of the penis and prostate are vital for achieving an erection. If these tissues are damaged during a surgery, a man may experience difficulty achieving a firm erection. Additionally, his sex drive may be reduced and his erections may be less firm or not firm enough. Some men may also experience discomfort during climax but this is temporary and usually resolves itself on its own.

A majority of patients undergo a radical prostatectomy. Fortunately, these procedures are effective and 90 percent of men who undergo a radical prostatectomy won’t die of prostate cancer within 10 years. The majority of men will continue to have the same level of sexual ability for a decade after surgery. However, erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery is an unfortunate side effect of the surgery. Because prostate cancer surgery disrupts the nerves and blood vessels that control erection, it can interfere with a man’s ability to have a healthy and satisfying erection.

In addition to vaginal procedures, men who have had a prostate surgery can benefit from oral medication. Some doctors may recommend oral PDE5 inhibitors after surgery. These drugs are effective for about 75 percent of men with this condition. Although ED is a common side effect of prostate surgery, it’s generally treatable with oral medications. However, men who are at risk for heart problems or have had a history of heart conditions are not a good candidate for these medications.

Vacuum device therapy involves the use of a vacuum device to force blood into the penis. A small rubber ring at the base of the penis prevents blood from leaking out when the seal is broken. The procedure is successful for about 80% of men. Another option for ED patients is to have a penile implant. This consists of a flexible plastic tube and a small balloon-like structure filled with fluid.

However, the lack of guidelines for the management of ED after prostate surgery caused healthcare professionals to become concerned about its potential negative effects. This led to the creation of specific consensus guidelines for the treatment of ED after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and brachytherapy. These guidelines are intended to help doctors better manage ED after prostate surgery by actively managing its consequences and ensuring a smooth transition back to sexual activity.

Duration of erectile dysfunction

Following prostate surgery, many men experience erectile dysfunction. While many medications are effective in treating erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery, some men experience a longer duration. To improve your sexual performance after surgery, talk to a specialist about alternative treatments. Often, oral medications are the most effective. You can also try a range of natural remedies, including acupuncture and yoga. Listed below are the most common treatments for ED.

Age is a major factor in the occurrence of ED after prostatectomy. Younger men are more likely to have normal sexual function within two years after the surgery. If surgery is necessary to remove the prostate, the surgeon may use nerve-sparing techniques to spare the nerves close to the penis. However, even nerve-sparing procedures can cause ED, and patients should not wait until they reach this age.

Surgical techniques that remove nerve tissue from the prostate may also delay erectile function. For instance, men who undergo radical prostatectomy may experience a longer duration of erectile dysfunction after the procedure. While many of these patients will eventually return to normal erectile function, it may take much longer than expected. Fortunately, most patients will regain their sexual function within a year or two of surgery.

The duration of erectile dysfunction following prostate surgery varies from patient to patient. Some men have erections within weeks, while others take longer. Some men will never achieve a natural erection again. To treat the problem, men may take medication or use vacuum erection devices. In the long term, however, they will likely continue to experience erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery.

Although the duration of erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery is unknown, the surgery has improved the quality of life for many men. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the US, with approximately 248,530 new cases expected to be diagnosed in the US by 2021. In addition, prostate surgery can improve sexual function and restore physical capacity. In fact, ninety percent of men will return to sexual activity within two years, irrespective of the type of treatment.

After prostate surgery, men will not experience ejaculation, although they may still have an orgasm. While these changes are harmless, men may worry about having sex with their partners after prostate surgery. In order to avoid unnecessary worry, men should be candid with their partners about their sexual life after prostate cancer. It is important to discuss all the options available to them with their partners and remember that ED and orgasm are equally important to a healthy sexual life.

Though the incidence of ED after prostate surgery is low, it is common. As many men experience difficulty achieving an erection after prostate surgery, doctors must prepare men for this potential side effect. While some men will experience a recurrence of ED up to two years after the surgery, others will continue to experience a decline in their sexual function. Therefore, it is important to discuss the risks and side effects with your doctor and your partner, so they can prepare for them.

Treatments for impotence

While the rates for men who develop impotence after prostate surgery have been high, the results from previous studies have been mixed. Impotence rates varied from 29 percent to 75 percent, suggesting that the difference between the studies might be due to differences in the patient population, study design and data collection methods. However, there is good news for men who are suffering from impotence after prostate surgery. Here are a few ways that you can get relief from this problem after surgery.

Regaining potency after prostate surgery is possible, but the chances diminish as a person ages. The more nerves that are damaged, the lower the chances of regaining potency. In addition, the primary goal of a prostate cancer surgery is to remove the prostate. Luckily, there are many ways to get back to normal, including medical therapy. Medical therapy involves taking medications and other drugs prescribed by a doctor to address impotence after surgery. In addition to prescription medications, doctors may also give you small injections.

Some men may benefit from penile rehabilitation after prostate surgery. A penile rehabilitation program is a great way to regain penis health and become more sexually active. The best time to start penile rehabilitation after prostate surgery is within three to six months. Penile rehabilitation can also improve the sex drive, which is essential for the health of the penis. During climax, some men experience discomfort but this usually dissipates on its own.

The recovery time for erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery depends on each individual patient. Some men return to erections within a few weeks, while others take longer. Some men may never be able to achieve an organic erection after prostate surgery. In such a case, men can choose to take medications or use vacuum erection devices to help them achieve a partial erection. Despite their best efforts, however, many men will still experience ED after prostate surgery, despite their best efforts.

The use of oral medications is another common option for treating impotence after prostate surgery. These drugs have shown promise and have been studied for use in men who suffered from erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery. The benefits of oral medications, however, must be weighed against the side effects of using them. Taking Viagra before sexual activity may interfere with the medication’s effectiveness. Therefore, men must obtain permission from a physician before starting any medication.

Another treatment for men who suffer from impotence after prostate surgery is a penile implant. This device consists of a flexible, narrow plastic tube that sits inside the penis. It fills with fluid that pulls the penis up until an erection is achieved. Kowalczyk cites a study of a 100% Medicare sample to support this method. The implant is effective in about 80 percent of patients. However, it comes with one disadvantage: it can lead to an earlier return to potency.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

Can I Use Soap Before A Mammogram

Can I Use Deodorant Or Soap Before a Mammogram?

If you have been thinking about getting a mammogram, you may be wondering if you can use deodorant or soap before the procedure. There are many myths surrounding this topic, including spreading cancer and bruising afterward. However, there are some important tips to help you get through the procedure without any problems. Follow these tips to have a better mammogram experience. You’ll be happy you did!

Using soap or lotion before a mammogram

Using soap or lotion before a mamogram is an unnecessary risk. Skin care products can cause calcifications on X-rays, which could be mistaken for cancerous changes. This can result in additional tests and unnecessary worry. Women should also avoid applying antiperspirants and deodorant before the procedure. Instead, they should wash their bodies thoroughly. Using these products will also cause additional skin irritation and could lead to a delayed or distorted mammogram.

A mammogram technician may ask a woman to wash off antiperspirant or deodorant. The presence of these beauty products could lead to calcifications on the X-ray, which is a warning sign of breast cancer. It is also best to avoid using deodorant and soap. A woman should wear pants and a top to avoid any skin irritation. She should also avoid her period.

While cosmetics can be applied before a mammogram, the particles contained in them could be visible during the test. Women should avoid applying bronzers to their chest or neck, though soap and lotion can be used beforehand. Some women ask if they can eat before a mammogram. The answer is yes, as long as they don’t eat or drink anything heavy before the exam. A healthy diet, including a balanced diet, won’t negatively affect the results of the test.

Before a mammogram, women should avoid using deodorant or other perfumed products. These products may interfere with the X-ray images, making them look unprofessional. The best time to undergo a mammogram is one week after menstruation, so they should try to avoid using deodorant for at least a week. It is also a good idea to arrive at the clinic at least 15 minutes before the appointment.

Using deodorant on the day of a mammogram

It’s a common misconception that using deodorant on the day of a breast exam is okay, but this isn’t necessarily true. In fact, using deodorant before a mammogram is not recommended. In fact, it may interfere with the imaging process, giving the physician inaccurate images. To avoid this issue, women should schedule their mammogram earlier in the day.

During the mammogram, it’s vital that the breast tissue is not covered in any liquid or solid substances. Otherwise, it could show up as a white spot on the mammogram. This could be indicative of cancerous tissue, requiring further tests. In such cases, the doctor may request another diagnostic mammogram to find out the cause. Body lotion, powder, perfume, and deodorant can also interfere with the results of the mammogram. These substances can make the images smudged and cause abnormalities.

Aluminum particles in deodorant can interfere with mammogram images. Aluminum particles on a mammogram are similar to the look of calcifications, which can be an early indication of breast cancer. Because aluminum particles can interfere with the imaging process, doctors ask patients not to wear deodorant on the day of a mammogram. This way, doctors can be sure that the images are clean. If you’re still concerned about odor, you can apply deodorant after the exam.

Women who are planning on wearing deodorant should inform their technologist that they’re planning on wearing deodorant on the day of their mammogram. To make sure that no deodorant remains on the patient’s skin, the technologist will provide you with moist towelettes to wipe off any remaining residue before imaging. If you forget to remove deodorant, you could end up needing more studies and possibly having to pay more money.

Spreading cancer

If you use soap before a mammogram, you’re increasing the risk of spreading cancer. This is because soap contains particles that can show up on a mammogram. These particles may lead to confusion, unnecessary alarm, or scheduling of an unnecessary mammogram. However, it is possible to prevent spreading cancer by choosing to apply deodorant only a week or so before the mammogram. You can practice social distancing in the waiting room and wash your hands thoroughly.

Bruising after a mammogram

Bruising after a mammogram may occur due to the compression of the breast tissue caused by the mammogram. While this is not harmful, it can be uncomfortable, causing some bruising and pain. However, bruising from a mammogram should not discourage you from having further imaging. Tell the technologist if you feel any discomfort so that he or she can take extra care to lessen the pain.

If you use a soap, shampoo, or any type of skin care product before a mammogram, the calcifications may appear on the X-ray as a “tender” lump. These lumps may look like cancerous changes and cause you to undergo unnecessary testing. It is also important to remember that a mammogram is uncomfortable, but this should last only for a few minutes. If you do experience some discomfort after the mammogram, you can use OTC medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Bruising after a mammogram can occur for several reasons. If a woman bleeds easily, the pain could deter her from going for additional screenings. If the swelling is rapid and fluctuating, the bleeding could be caused by a haematoma. You may wish to consult your doctor to determine if you need further tests. It’s important to understand what causes the bruising after a mammogram.

Although the compression during a mammogram may cause temporary discomfort, it’s necessary to ensure that the doctor can see everything clearly. This minor inconvenience is well worth it in the end if it means living a long and healthy life free of breast cancer. For women who are pregnant, avoiding using soap before a mammogram could make breasts more sensitive. To avoid this problem, schedule your mammogram for mid-cycle.

Getting a 3D mammogram

The process for getting a 3D mammogram is the same as for a traditional 2D mammogram. The technologist positions you on a platform and gently presses on your breast. The machine then moves back and forth, collecting images. You will need to hold your breath for this part of the test. You will then be asked to remove any clothing around your waist and pose yourself perfectly. The technologist will then apply pressure with a plastic plate to the side of your breast.

The process is relatively quick and usually lasts about 20 minutes. A technologist will talk you through the procedure so that you can feel comfortable. The 3D technology allows the technologist to take higher-resolution pictures that may be more accurate. In some cases, women may be asked to hold their breath during the procedure. The whole process may take up to 20 minutes, and after the mammogram is completed, you can go home.

A 3D mammogram will help your doctor detect breast cancer in dense breast tissue. These types of cancers can be hard to detect on a standard mammogram because they appear white. However, 3D mammograms can help your doctor detect breast cancer in areas that are difficult to see with a traditional mammogram. You should also check your insurance provider before scheduling your test to make sure you are covered. Often, they will cover the traditional portion of the test, but will charge you for the 3D part of the test.

Because the 3D mammogram produces a three-dimensional image of the breast, it is more effective in detecting cancers in dense breast tissue. Dense breast tissue is white while fatty tissue is gray, so it’s important to get a 3D mammogram for a more accurate diagnosis. Getting a 3D mammogram can reduce call-back rates and increase the accuracy of cancer detection by 27% to 50%.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352470
https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/basic_info/what-is-breast-cancer.htm
https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/what-is-prostate-cancer.html
https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate
https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/prostate-cancer-symptoms-tests-and-treatments
https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast